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    Project Management
    项目管理课程介绍 Nanjing University Yang Yao
    Session #1
    Clifford F. Gray/Erick W. larson Project Management: The Managerial process

    Welcome to PM Course 欢迎学习项目管理课程

    Contact Modes 联系方式
    ? 手机:13390763916 ? E-Mail :

    What I Expect of Myself 对我自己的期望
    ? Facilitate lively and meaningful discussion.
    ? Focus activities around “real world” situations
    ? Provide constructive feedback.
    ? Meet your needs (as best I can).

    What I ask of You 老师对学生们的要求
    ?Active participation 积极参与 ?Open mindedness 开动脑筋
    ?Constructive dialog 建设性的对话
    ?Active listening 积极听讲
    ?Helping with keeping us (i.e. “me”) on task & schedule
    ?High-quality, graduate-level research
    高质量,研究生水平的研究 ?Professional writing 专业写作 ?Challenging yourself and me… 挑战你和我
    ?Helping to make this class meaningful ….

    PM `Course Description 项目管理课程描述
    ? This course introduces specific managerial concepts and techniques useful in project management. Topics include: organizational structure; how to plan, begin, carry out, control and close project processes; and the relationship between projects and an organization’s mission, objectives and goals.
    本课程介绍了用于项目管理当中一些特别的 管理概念和技术。题目包括:组织结构,如 何做计划、如何开始、执行、控制及结束项 目过程;以及项目与组织使命,目的和目标 的关系等。

    Everyone could be successful, PM should be a golden key that would bring you success
    ?Your future success would depend on your behavior of doing something and the way of thinking.
    ?Interpersonal relationship should be stressed wherever you go.
    ?IQ is important, but EQ is more important than IQ. (智商 Intelligence quotient,)

    Learning Goals 学习目标
    ? Upon the successful completion of this course, you will be able to:
    1. Understand how projects and project management relate to the various functions of an organizational “enterprise”;
    2. Assess project feasibility and project plan completeness, procedures, and techniques;
    3. Apply basic project management concepts to business situations, including the “project life cycle”.
    成功地学完本课程后,学生们将能够: 1)了解项目和项目管理与组织企业中的各种职能的相
    关性。 2)评估项目的可行性、项目计划的完整性以及项目程
    序和技术。 3)应用项目管理的基本概念于具体商业情形中,包括

    Assignments, Final Exam and

    ?Group Assignment 小组作业 (Project plan)
    ?Class participation 课上参与 ?Final Exam 最终考试
    ?Total points 总分

    – 30 points
    - 10 – 60
    – 100

    Group Assignment 小组作业
    Develop a detailed project plan.
    ? This project plan should be representative of those in use in actual projects in your environments.
    ? You may pick a project of your own, using an actual or created situation.
    ? Your plan must include the core elements listed below, using conventional formats: 制定一个详细的项目计划书
    ? 该项目计划书应当能代表商业环境中具体的项目。 ? 你可以自己选择一个项目,用实际的或虚拟的。 ? 项目计划书一定包含如下的核心要素,按常规的格

    Group Assignment 小组作业

    ? For group assignment you will create a detailed Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) for a project of your choice. The WBS should include an element dictionary that describes each element at least to level three. 选定项目创立一个详细的WBS, 至 少要分三层。

    ? Your WBS project may involve any one of the following project types: WBS 项目可以包括如下类型的项目。

    A party 举办一次晚会

    A study plan 一个学习计划

    A Sport meeting 一次运动会

    A dancing training 舞蹈培训

    Other 其他

    ing Criteria for Individual Assignments 作业的评分标准

    Completeness and Workability
    Use of course concepts in formulation 课程中概念的应用 Grammar/spelling/syntax/format 语法/拼写/句法/格式

    45% 45% 10%

    Assignment Specific Requirements 作业的特别要求
    ? Assignment Please submit it on the date of final exam by hardcopy and also e-mail me at the same time.
    ? 请将打印好的作业在最终考试时交于老师,同 时请将作业电子版发到我的电子信箱中。
    ? Length of Paper. A quality undergraduate-level research paper of this type should consist of between 5-8 typed, double spaced pages (not including title page, table of contents, or reference list) 5-8页,空两格间距大学生水平质量的研究论 文(不包括标题页,目录以及参考文献)
    ? Writing Style. American Psychological Association (APA) recommended
    ? 推荐用美国心理协会的写作风格(APA格式)

    Overview of Project Management

    Overview of Project Management
    ? This figure is a pictorial representation of project management. 该图是一种项目管理的图形解释
    ? The objective of the figure is to show that project management is designed to manage or control company resources on a given activity, within time, within cost, and within performance.这张图的目的是表明项目管理是 在一定的时间、成本、绩效下,针对给定的活动管理或控 制公司资源。
    ? Time, cost, and performance are the constraints on the project. 时间、成本、和绩效是项目的约束因素
    ? If the project is to be accomplished for an outside customer, then, project has a fourth constraint: good customer relations. 如果项目是为外部客户实施的,那么, 项目又有了第四个限制因素:良好的客户关系。

    Three Project objectives 三个项目目标
    ? Time 时间 ? Cost 成本 ? Performance 绩效

    What is project ? 什么是项目?
    A project is a complex, non-routine, onetime effort limited by time, budget, resources, and performance specification designed to meet customer needs. 项目是一种复杂的,非日常性的、一次性 的努力,并受时间、预算、资源以及能满 足客户要求绩效或规格的限制。

    What is Project ? 什么是项目?
    ? A project is a one time job or activity 项目是一次性的工作或活动。
    ? Has definite starting and ending points 有明确的开始和结束点。
    ? Clearly defined objectives 有清楚界定的目标。 ? Scope 有范围 ? Budget 有预算
    A project is a problem scheduled for solution. Dr. J. M. Juran
    (Dean of American consultants on quality control, was a pioneer in the development of principles and methods for managing quality control programs)

    What is a Project? 什么是项目?

    A Project is any series of tasks and activities that: Have Specific Objectives to be Completed
    1 Within Certain Specifications 某种规定内要完成特定的目标

    2 Have Defined Start and End Dates 有开始和结束日期
    3 Have Funding Limits 有资金的限制
    4 Consume Resources

    Master Schedule

    The major characteristics of a project 项目的主要特点
    ? An established objective 一个确立的目标 ? A defined life span with a beginning and an end;
    有规定的生命周期,有开始和结束。 ? Usually, the involvement of several
    departments and professionals. 通常会有多部 门及众多专业人员参与。(强调跨部门沟通与协 作) ? Typically, doing something that has never been done before. 过去从未做过。(不确定性大) ? Specific time, cost, and performance requirements. 有具体的时间,成本以及绩效要 求。

    Project life cycle项目生命周

    Project life cycle项目生命周

    ? Definition: Specifications of the project are defined; project objectives are established; teams are formed; major responsibilities are assigned.
    ? Planning stage: the level of effort increases and plans are developed to determine what the project will entail, when it will be scheduled, whom it will benefit, what quality level should be maintained and what the budget will be.
    ? Execution stage: A major portion of the project work takes place- both physical and mental. The physical product is produced ( a bridge, a report , and software program) ,Time, cost and specification measures are used for control. Is the project on schedule, on budget, and meeting specifications? What are the forecasts of each of these measures ? What revisions /changes are necessary?
    ? Delivery stage: Includes the two activities: delivering the project product to the customer and redeploying project resources. Delivery of the project might include customer training and transferring documents. Redeployment usually involves releasing project equipment/materials to other projects and finding new assignments for teams members

    MANAGEMENT ? 为什么要用项目管理 ?
    ?Project Management and productivity are related !

    The Importance of Project Management
    项目管理的重要性 (The dawning of “the age of Project Management”)
    ? Compression of the Product Life Cycle 产品生命周期的缩短 ? Global Competition 全球性竞争 ? Knowledge Explosion 知识爆炸 ? Corporate Downsizing for survival 求生存公司压缩 ? Increased Customer Focus 客户化服务的增强
    ? Rapid Development of Developing countries and Closed Economies 第三世界,发展中国家飞速发展以及封闭经济的解禁
    ? Small Projects Represent Big Problems 小项目代表大问题

    The importance of Project Management & The Age of Project
    Management 项目管理的重要性与项目管理的时代

    The Importance of Project Management
    ? Global competition
    ? Today’s open market demands not only cheaper products and services but also better products and services. This has led to the emergence of the quality movement across the world with ISO 9000 certification a requirement for doing business. ISO 9000 is a family of international standards for quality management and assurance. These standards cover design, procurement, quality assurance, and delivery processes for everything from banking to manufacturing. Quality management and improvement invariably involve project management
    ? More and more work is being classified as projects, Individuals are being assigned responsibility to achieve a specific objective within a given budget and by a specified deadline. Project management, with its triple focus on time, cost, and performance, is proving to be an efficient, flexible way to get things done.

    The Importance of Project
    ? Knowledge explosion
    The growth in new knowledge has increased the complexity of projects because projects encompass the latest advances. For example, building a road 30 years ago was somewhat simple process. Today, each area have increased in complexity, including materials, specifications, codes, aesthetics, equipment, and required specialists. Similarly, in today’s digital, electronic age it is becoming hard to find a new product that does not contain at least one microchip. Project complexity has increased the need to integrate divergent technologies. Project management has emerged as an important discipline for achieving this task.

    The Importance of Project
    ? Corporate Downsizing
    The last decade has seen a dramatic restructuring of organizational life. Downsizing and sticking to core competencies have become necessary for survival for many firms. Middle management is a mere skeleton of the past. In today’s flatter and leaner organizations, where change is a constant, project management is replacing middle management as a way of ensuring that things get done. Corporate downsizing has also led to a change in the way organizations approach projects. Companies outsource significant segments of project work, and project management have to manage not only their own people but also their counterparts in different organizations.

    The Importance of Project
    ? Increased Customer focus
    ? Increased competition has placed a premium on customer satisfaction. Customers no longer simple settle for generic products and services. They want customized products and services that cater to their specific needs. This mandate requires a much closer working relationship between the provider and the receiver.
    ? Increased customer attention has also prompted the development of customized products and services. Project management is critical both to development of customized products and services and to sustaining lucrative relationships with customers.

    The Importance of Project
    ? Rapid development of third world and closed economies
    ? The collapse of the Soviet Empire and the graduate opening of Asian communist countries have created an explosion of pent-up demand within these societies for all manger of consumer goods and infrastructure development. Western firms are scrambling to introduce their products and service to these new markets, many firms are using project management techniques to establish distribution channels, and foreign bases of operations, these historical change have created a tremendous market for core project work in the area of heavy construction and telecommunications as eastern European and Asian countries strive to revitalize their inefficient industries and decrepit infrastructure.

    The Importance of Project
    ? Small projects represent big problems
    ? The velocity of change required to remain competitive or simply keep up has created an organizational climate in which hundreds of projects are implemented concurrently. This climate has created a multiproject environment and a plethora of new problems. Sharing and prioritizing resources across a portfolio of projects is a major challenge for senior management.
    ? Small projects typically carry the same or more risk as do large projects.
    ? Because so many projects are going on concurrently and because the perception of the inefficiency impact is small, measuring inefficiency is usually nonexistent. Unfortunately, many small projects soon add up to large sums of money, many customers and millions of dollars are lost each year on small projects in product and service organizations.
    ? Many small projects can eat up the people resources of a firm and represent hidden costs not measured in the accounting system.

    The Importance of Project
    ? Organizations with many small project going on concurrently face the difficult project management problems.
    ? A key question becomes one of how to create an organizational environment that supports multi project management. A process is needed to prioritize and develop a portfolio of small projects that supports the mission of the organization.

    The Importance of Project Management
    ? In summary, there are a variety of environmental forces interacting in today’s business world that contribute to the increased demand for good project management across all industries and sectors. Project management apprears to be ideally suited for a business environment requiring accountability, flexibility, innovation, speed and continuous improvement, however, people do not embrace change easily or quickly.

    The “professional” PM PMI Membership
    美国项目管理协会 会员数从90年到2001年剧增情况。
    ? 1990: 7,500 members
    ? 2001: 86,000 members

    战略管理、运作管理与项目管理 Strategic management, Operation management

    and project management

    ?战略管理(Strategic management)



    Strategy management

    ?运作管理(Operation Management)




    Project managemOepnetration Management

    ?项目管理(Project management)


    The Three-Legged



    Project Manager

    Line Management

    Senior Management (I.e. Sponsor)

    ?Project Manager项目经理 ?Line Manager(s)直线经理 ?Executive Management (i.e... Project
    Sponsor) 高级执行管理人,项目赞助发起人
    Maturity cannot exist without stability


    Resources that most companies have
    ? Money ( controlled by Project manager)
    ? Manpower( controlled by line manager )
    ? Equipment (controlled by line manager)
    设备由直线经理控制 ? Facilities( controlled by line manager) 设施由直线经理控制 ? Materials(controlled by line manager) 材料由直线经理控制
    ? Information/technology(controlled by line manager)
    ? Project manager must, therefore, negotiate with line managers for all project
    resources , 因此,项目经理必须与直线经理沟通协商以获得所有项目资 源。
    ? Effective project management requires an understanding of quantitative tools and techniques, organizational structures, organizational behavior.

    Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
    能力成熟度模型 (developed by SEI and PMI at
    Carnegie Mellon University)

    Capability Maturity Model (CMM)
    能力成熟度模型 (developed by SEI and PMI at
    Carnegie Mellon University)
    ? Each level represents an advance in the use of benchmarked project management best practices.
    ? Level 1: There is an absence of a process for developing a project plan that includes cost, time, and performance ( Unpredictable processes)
    ? Level 2: Repeatable processes used primarily on large mission-critical projects.
    ? Level 3 Well-defined processes that are integrated with organization processes.
    ? Level 4: The highest level represents seamless, integrated, holistic project systems and processes that include strategic decisions that take into account project selection, plans, performance, and lessons learned.
    ? Level 5: Continuous improvement by archiving and using lessons learned to improve project management learned.

    Integrated Management of Projects 项目的综合管理

    Integration of Projects with the Strategic
    ? In some organizations, selection and management of projects often fail to support the strategic plan of the organization. Strategic plans are written by one group of managers, projects selected by another group, and projects implemented by another.
    ? 在一些组织中,项目的选择和管理常常未能支持组织的战略计划。 战略计划由一群管理人员编撰,而项目有另一组人选择,又由再 一组人来实施。
    ? These independent decisions by different groups of managers create a set of conditions leading to conflict, confusion, and frequently, an unsatisfied customer.
    ? 不同管理人员群体的这些独立决策产生了一系列的情况,导致了 冲突、混乱、以及常常使客户不满意。
    ? Under these conditions, resources of the organization are wasted in non-value-added activities /projects.
    ? 在这些情况下,组织的资源被浪费在没有附加值的活动/项目上。

    An integrated project management
    ? An integrated project management system is one in which all of the parts are interrelated. A change in any one of the parts will influence the whole. 在整合的项目管理系统中,所有的部分都是彼此相关的,任何 部分的变化会影响整体。
    ? Every organization has a customer it is seeking to satisfy. The customer sets the raison d’etre for the organization. 每个组织都有其力图满足的客户,客户决定了组织的生存理由。
    ? Mission, objectives, and organization strategies are set to meet the needs of customers. 使命、目标、和组织战略的制定必须满足客户的需要。
    ? Development of a mission, objectives. And organization strategies depend on the external and internal environmental factors. 使命、目标、和组织战略取决于外部和内部的环境因素。

    The Technical and Sociocultural Dimensions of the Project Management Process 项目管理过程技术和

    The difference between project and
    operation ?
    ? Operations and projects share many characteristics, they are performed by people, constrained by limited resources, planned, executed and controlled. (common points) 共同点: 都是有人来实施的,受有限资源的限制,都需要计划、实施和 控制。
    ? Operations and projects differ primarily in that operation is ongoing and repetitive while projects are temporary and unique. ( different points) 其主要区别是:运作是正在进行中,重复性的工作,而项目是 临时的,唯一性的。
    ? Projects are often implemented as a mean of achieving an organization’s strategic plan. ( corporate strategic goal and plan can be achieved by projects)
    ? 项目常常作为实现组织战略计划的工具而实施的。公司目标和 计划是通过项目来实现的。

    Examples of Project 项目举例
    (could be small or big 项目可大可小)
    ? New product or service development, effecting a change in structure,staffing, or style of an organization, 新产品或服务开 发,影响结构、人员或组织类型的变化。
    ? Designing new transportation vehicle (car,train, ship aircraft) 设计新的运输交通工具(如汽车、火车,轮船、飞机)
    ? Develop a new or modified information system (MIS, soft system in organization, such as financial & accounting ) 开发 组织内部新的或改进的信息系统,如管理信息系统,软系统, 如财务和会计系统。
    ? Building a water system for a community,为社会修建供水系统 ? Running a campaign for political office 政治竞选活动 ? A meeting or ceremony organizing and designing 会议组织或

    t is Project Management?

    ? What ? When ? Why ? Where ? Who ? How

    In a Nutshell 5W+H
    ?What needs to be done? 需要做什么? ?When does it need to be done by?
    需要什么时候做? ?Why does it need to be done? ?为什么需要做? ?Where is it going to be done? 去那儿做? ?Who is going to do it? 谁去做? ?How is it going to be done? 如何去做?

    What is Project Management? 什么是项 目管理?
    Project management is the planning, scheduling, and controlling of project activities to achieve performance, cost and time objectives, for a given scope of work, while using resources efficiently and effectively. 项目管理是在项目给定的工作范围内,对项目活 动做计划、进度以及控制并有效果及有效率地利 用资源以达到项目的绩效、成本以及时间的目标。

    What is Project Management?
    PM involves project planning and project monitoring and includes such items as: 项 目管理包括项目计划及项目监控
    Project planning 项目计划
    ? Definition of work requirements 工作要求定义 ? Definition of quantity and quality of work 工作质量和数量定义 ? Definition of resources needed 所需资源的定义
    Project monitoring 项目监控
    ? Tracking progress 追踪项目进程 ? Comparing actual outcome to predicted outcome 实际结果及预期结果
    进行比较 ? Analyzing impact 分析影响效果 ? Making adjustments 作相应调整

    What is Project Management? 什么是项目管 理?
    ? Four Variables 四个变量
    – Cost 成本 – Performance 绩效 – Time 时间 – Scope 范围
    C=f (P, T, S) 绩效、时间、及项目范围与成本的函数关系

    What is successful Project Management?
    It can defined as having achieved the project
    objectives: 可以定义为:实现项目目标
    ? Within time 在规定时间之内 ? Within cost 在预算成本之内 ? At the desired performance/technology
    达到期望绩效/技术。 ? While utilizing the assigned resources effectively and
    efficiently 有效果及有效率地利用所分配的资源 ? Accepted by the customer 客户可以满意接受

    Defining Project Success 项目成功定义
    ? Within the allocated time period 在分配的时间之内 ? Within the budgeted cost 规定的预算成本之内。 ? At the proper performance or specification level
    满足正确的绩效或规格水平 ? With acceptance by the customer/user
    得到客户或用户的认可和接受。 ? With minimum or mutually agreed upon scope changes
    能够互相认可的项目范围变化最小化 ? Without disturbing the main work flow of the organization 不
    会影响组织主要业务流程 ? Without changing the corporate culture. 不会改变公司文化

    Why Project Management ? 为什么要用项目管理?
    Companies have experienced: 公司已经经历过: ? Better control 较好的控制 ? Better customer relations 较好的客户关系 ? Shorter development times 缩短了开发时间 ? Lower costs 降低了成本 ? Higher quality and reliability
    较高的质量和可靠性 ? Higher profit margins 较高的利润 ? Sharper orientation toward results
    更加以结果为导向 ? Better interdepartmental coordination 部门间协调得更好了 ? Higher worker morale 员工的士气更高了

    Project Management as a Process
    ? PMBOK from PMI
    ? Various texts and authors
    ? Other professional organizations

    Importance of Processes
    ? The P程ow序e的r o重f “要Pro性cess” 程序的力量
    – Committing all requirements to writing 将全部要求写下来
    – Using procedures to standardize project changes 用程序将项目变更标准化
    – Conduct technical reviews of all requirements 将所有的要求进行技术总结
    – Developing Quality Assurance Plan 开发质量保证计划
    – Achieve cost, schedule, and performance goals 可以达到成本、进度以及绩效目标

    ocess Groups from PMBOK

    如何理解项目管理过程 ?
    How to understand PM process?
    ? 项目管理工作具有强烈的目标导向性; PM is goal oriented
    ? 它类似于导弹发射, 开始设定目标,飞行中锁定目标,不断调整方向,最终 击中目标,事后总结研究评估以期不断改进技术。 It is like missile emission, goal is set, and lock the target while flying, adjusting direction constantly, and hit the target, post evaluation after launching in order to improve technology and performance.
    ? 传统的火器,子弹出膛、立即失控;而导弹所带来的革命性变化就在于它能 “精确制导”,在飞行过程中受控。 Traditional firearms, it is usually out of control immediately after firing, the revolutionary changes that missile bring is its accurate homing, it is controllable while flying.
    ? 同样,受控也是项目管理的一大显著特征; Similarly, the controllable is a significant feature of project management.
    ? 导弹的控制系统对应到项目管理上就是项目管理过程中的“计划、执行、控 制”循环。 The controllable system of missile in PM application is “planning, executing and controlling “ in project management process,

    A Conceptual Project Life Cycle 概念上的项目生命周期
    Project Manager项目经理

    结束项目Close the Build & Charter
    Projecthe Team 建立章程和团队

    Manage Project Change

    Client 制订计划Develop the
    Project Plan

    管理项目变更 Gain




    The Project Life Cycle 项目生命周期


    Slow Finish
    Typical 典型的
    Quick Momentum

    Slow Start

    There is no “right” Life cycle curve, but The PM must know its shape. 没有绝对正确的生命周期曲线, 但项目经理一定要知道它的形状

    Implications: ? Budget 预算 ? Schedules 进度

    Time 时间
    ? Resource Availability 可用资源 ? Risk 风险

    Stakeholders- The “Big Picture” 项目干系人
    Agencies / Regulators 一些管理机构
    Suppliers 供应商 Creditors

    Engineering Team工程团队

    Government 政府

    The Board 董事会 Stockholders 股东
    Other PMs其它项目经理

    Factory Workers工厂工人

    General Public 大众

    Union Boss 协会老板

    k of Relationships in PM 项目管理关系网络图



    Other organizations 其他组织

    management高级管理层 sponsors 项目发起人

    Customers 客户

    managers 项目经理

    Project manager项目经理

    managers 职能经理

    Government agencies政府机构

    Administrative 管理支持support

    Contractors 合同方

    Project Management Negatives 项目管理的负面影响
    Companies have also experienced some negatives:
    ? Greater organizational complexity 组织更加复杂
    ? Increased likelihood of organizational policy violations 增加组织政策侵害的可能性
    ? Higher costs 成本较高 ? More management difficulties 管理更困难 ? Low personnel utilization 人员利用率低

    Why Projects Fail, 项目为什么失败了?
    A Failed Project 一个失败的项目意味着 =
    Late Completion 完成延误/ Cost Overrun 成本超支/ Substandard Performance绩效不达标
    Causes 原因
    ? Top management not recognizing this activity as a project 高层管理没有把此活动当成项目 ? Too many projects at the same time 同时有太多的项目运作。 ? Impossible schedule commitments 不可能的进度承诺 ? No “functional” inputs in the planning stage 在计划阶段,没有职能部门参与 ? No one person responsible for the entire project 整个项目没有人来负责 ? Poor design control 较差的设计控制 ? Poor change control (including customer changes) 较差的变更控制(包括客户变更) ? Wrong person assigned as project manager 项目经理选错了 ? No integrated planning & control 没有整合计划和控制 ? Overcommitment of company resources 对公司资源过高承诺 ? No project cost accounting ability 没有项目成本会计能力 ? Poorly organized project office 项目办公室组织较差

    Review 总结回顾
    ? To explain why project management is crucial in today’s world 解释为什么项目管理在当今世界中是 至关重要的
    ? To define a project and differentiate projects from routine operations界定项目与运作的区别
    ? To establish the importance of projects in implementing organization strategy 建立项目对适 时组织战略的重要性
    ? To introduce the concept of a project maturity model that traces the evolution of project management systems.
    ? 介绍了追溯项目管理系统发展的项目成熟度模型

    Review questions 复习题
    ? Why is the implementation of projects important to strategic planning and the project manager? 为什么说项目实施对战略计划和项目经理来说是 重要的?
    ? The technical and socio/cultural dimensions of project management are two sides to the same coin. Explain.
    ? 项目管理的技术和社会/文化纬度是同一硬币的两 面。请解释。

    PMP Test
    Identify the example that would not usually be considered a project. a) Building a house b) Developing a computer software application program c) Designing a new product d) Manufacturing automobiles
    According to the authors, the prime objectives of project management are a) Performance, cost, time b) Quality, scope, schedule c) Customer satisfaction, budget, schedule d) Performance, scope, schedule

    PMP Test
    The five attributes that characterize a project are: a) Purpose, repetition, interdependencies, consistency, uncertainty b) Lifecycle, schedule, cost, uncertainty, independence c) Purpose, lifecycle, uniqueness, conflict, interdependencies d) Purpose, lifecycle, conflict, certainty, independence
    The desired outcomes or results of a project are called ____________. a) Tasks
    b) Work packages c) Subprojects d) Deliverables

    The seven steps of Case Analysis
    1。 Problem Definition 问题定义(确定存在问题)
    2。 Justification for Problem Definition 问题定义的原由(为什么会存
    3。 List Alternative Courses of Action 列出可选择行动路径(解决方案) 4。 Evaluate Alternatives 评价可供选择的方法
    5。 Review 总结 6。Draw Conclusions, Make Recommendations/Decisions
    得出结论,做出建议/决策 7。Follow Up and Evaluate 跟进并评估

    Thought for success 成功思维
    I can give you a six-word formula for Success: “ Think things through ---彻底思考 then follow through.” 贯彻执行.
    ------- Edward Rickenbacker